Climate change: the effects on European birds
20 April 2022
Significant, long-term changes in the global climate are referred to as climate change. The interrelated system of the sun, earth, oceans, wind, rain, snow, forests, deserts, savannas, and everything people do make up the global climate. The climate of a place, such as New York, can be described by rainfall, seasonal temperature changes, and other factors. In this group of widely distributed European land birds, the number of species whose populations are negatively impacted by climate change is three times more than those whose populations are positively influenced by climate change.
Effects on European birds
On a European scale, climate change has a discernible impact on bird populations, with both detrimental and beneficial consequences.
- In this group of widespread European land birds, the number of bird species whose populations are reported to be negatively impacted by climate change is three times more than those whose numbers are observed to be positively influenced by climate change.
- Huntley and Mller have found substantial evidence that climate change drives changes in the phenology, distribution, and abundance of certain European birds. Recently, scientists created a biological indicator that reveals that climate change has impacted many bird species across Europe, with most of these species suffering severe consequences.
- The indicator is based on the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme’s population trend data and climatic envelope model forecasts of future geographical range alterations. From 1980 to 2005, population data for 122 common European land birds were merged with a model estimate of the change in the species’ projected range-extending by the end of the century (2070–2099).
- The scientists categorized the species into those whose geographic ranges are expected to expand or contract. The Climatic Impact Indicator (CII) is based on the disparity between these two groups’ population trajectories. During the 1980s, the CII fell due to a string of cold winters (see figure). The CII, on the other hand, has risen rapidly since 1986, in line with model forecasts and coinciding with a time of fast climatic warming over Europe. Most importantly, it indicates that 75 percent of the European birds tested had been negatively impacted by climate change.
- According to the CII, climate change could drastically alter species composition across Europe. Such fast changes in biological communities may have significant ecological ramifications for ecosystem function and resilience. The European Commission has already approved the CII as part of the indicators for assessing progress toward preventing biodiversity loss by 2010. The CII has a lot of room for improvement—it can easily be expanded to include more nations as new bird monitoring programs emerge, and additional indicators can be produced for specific bird groups or countries.